Is there something special about cities for economic growth?

As economies grow richer, they urbanize. Which way does the causality run? There are a lot of reasons to suspect that urban areas are drivers of economic growth, but what is it about urban areas that makes them such centers of innovation? Are there differences in urban areas that developed earlier or later in history, or that grew because of natural resource booms versus manufacturing expansions?

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  1. 2019.   Jedwab, Remi and Vollrath, Dietrich.   "The Urban Mortality Transition and Poor Country Urbanization".   American Economic Journal, Macroeconomics, 11(1):223-75.
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  5. 2015.   Jedwab, Remi and Vollrath, Dietrich.   "Urbanization without growth in historical perspective".   Explorations in Economic History, 58(C):1-21.   Link
  6. 2015.   Bleakley, Hoyt and Lin, Jeffrey.   "History and the sizes of cities". Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia   Link
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  11. 2013.   Mark Dincecco and Massimiliano Gaetano Onorato.   "Military Conflict and the Rise of Urban Europe". IMT Institute for Advanced Studies Lucca   Link
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