Abstract: A large body of literature estimates private returns to R\&D adopting the Griliches knowledge production framework, which ignores the potential impact of spillovers on consistent estimation. Using a panel of twelve manufacturing industries across ten OECD economies, we investigate whether ignoring spillovers leads to bias in the estimated private returns to R\&D. We compare results from a common factor framework, which accounts for spillovers and other unobserved shocks, to those from a standard Griliches approach. Our findings confirm that conventional estimates conflate own-R\&D and spillover effects, implying that spillovers cannot be ignored even when the interest lies exclusively in evaluating private returns to R\&D. {\copyright} 2013 The President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.