Abstract: This article provides a survey of a growing body of empirical evidence that points toward the important long-term effects that historic events can have on economic development. The most re- cent studies, using microlevel data and more sophisticated identifi- cation techniques, have moved beyond testing whether history matters and attempt to identify exactly why history matters. The most commonly examined channels include institutions, culture, knowledge and technology, and movements between multiple equi- libria. The article concludes with a discussion of the questions that remain and the direction of current research in the literature.