Abstract: The authors investigate nutrition and expenditure in rural Maharashtra in India. They estimate that the elasticity of calorie consumption with respect to total expenditure is 0.3-0.5, a range that is in accord with conventional wisdom. The elasticity declines only slowly with levels of living and is far from the value of zero suggested by a recent revisionist literature. In these Indian data, the calories necessary for a day’s activity cost less than 5 percent of the daily wage, which makes it implausible that income is constrained by nutrition rather than the other way around. Copyright 1996 by University of Chicago Press.